Pulses is one of the most constituent of the Indian cropping and consumption patterns. Pulses are rich in proteins; besides that it has essential amino acids, enrich soil health through nitrogen fixation. Among the pulses, bengal gram/chickpea contributed 48%, Pigeon pea 17%, black gram 10%, green gram 7% and other pulses 18% towards total pulses production. Pulses cultivation majorly falls under rainfed, poor resource and harsh environment frequently prone to draught and other abiotic stress conditions.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae. It is one of the oldest pulses cultivated from ancient times both in Asia and in Europe. It is for human consumption as well as for feeding to animals. It is eaten as whole fried and commonly in the form of split pulse which is cooked and eaten. The grains are also used as vegetable. Its flour is used for preparation of many sweets. Chickpea is a small branched herbaceous plant grows up to 60cm height.
Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is popular as red gram or tool dal, being an important source of protein for vegetarian diet. The split dried seeds are used as lentil and fresh pod is used as vegetable. Pigeon pea is semi-arid crop tolerant to dry conditions due to its well-developed root systems.
Black gram (Vigna mungo) is popularly known as Urad grown across India. The crop is resistant to adverse climatic conditions. It is primarily used for protein rich seeds and rich in phosphoric acid. It is grown as rainfed crop in warm plains and in cool hills.
Green gram (Phaseolus aureus) also known as moong consumed as whole pulse as well as split pulse. It is good source of iron and fibre. Grown in warm humid climate and temperature range of 25-300 C with moderate rains of 85-100cm.