The common grape vine (Vitis vinifera) is a species of Vitis. The plant comes originally from the Mediterranean region, central Europe and southwestern Asia and thus has been cultivated in Morocco and Portugal, southern Germany and Iran. The grape is the fruit of this plant and is actually a berry.

Grapes are consumed fresh and they are processed to make wine or juice and dried to produce raisins. Nowadays there are between 5,000 and 10,000 varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes, but only a few play an important commercial role when it comes to the production of wine, but also table grapes. Still, cultivars of the Vitis vinifera are the basis of wine production around the world. All the usual wine varieties are made from (different) types of Vitis vinifera.